Neoliberalism encompasses a wide range of social, political, and economic ideologies that have evolved over time in a variety of disciplines and terrains. Here, we shall discuss neoliberalism theory, focusing particularly on its types and forms as these theories of neoliberalism are evident in different facets of the economy and society. However, before we discuss the different neoliberal theories and their forms, let us define neoliberalism.
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There are varying definitions for neoliberalism due to its wide application across various disciplines as well as its resultant effects when applied culturally, politically, economically, or socially. In a general sense, the term is often used to describe ideologies that have economic and individual liberalization as their key tenets. Neoliberalism is a complex and multifaceted social, economic, and political ideology that advocates for deregulation, reduction in government spending, privatization, free trade, monetarism, globalization, and an increased role of the private sector in the society and economy.
Neoliberalism refers to the constellation of socio-economic and politico-cultural relations that were common practice during the post-Keynesian era. The period was characterized by structural adjustment policies, economic liberalism, and pro-capitalist theories geared at the emergence of free economies and the globalization of trade through the removal of various international market barriers. The structural adjustment policies were neoliberal reforms that the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) encouraged developing countries to adopt as part of the requirements for accessing loans.
Although the debate continues as to the defining features of neoliberalism, it is mostly associated with laissez-faire economics and a belief in sustained economic growth as a means of achieving human progress. Neoliberalism emphasizes minimal state influence on social and economic affairs, considers free trade and movement of capital as important keys to development, and believes that free markets are necessary for the most efficient allocation of resources.
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Types of neoliberalism theory
- Chicago school neoliberalism
- Austrian school neoliberalism
- Institutional neoliberalism
- Market neoliberalism
- Social neoliberalism
Before we discuss each of these neoliberalism theories as listed above, it is important to note that each of these neoliberalism theories may have different emphases and priorities, but they are all broadly united by a commitment to free markets, minimal government intervention in the economy, and a belief in the efficiency of market forces.
The Chicago school neoliberalism theory is one of the early neoliberal ideologies which emerged in the United States in the 1940s and 1950s at the University of Chicago. The Chicago School of Economics was founded by a group of economists, including Milton Friedman and George Stigler, who were critical of the Keynesian economic policies that dominated the post-World War II era. They argued that the government should play a minimal role in the economy, and that market forces should be allowed to operate freely to allocate resources efficiently.
One of the key ideas of this neoliberalism theory is the importance of individualism. The Chicago school argued that individuals are the best judges of their own needs and desires and that markets are the most effective way to coordinate individual decisions and allocate resources. Based on this perspective, government intervention in the economy is deemed counterproductive, as it distorts market signals and leads to inefficient outcomes.
Another key idea of this neoliberal theory is the importance of free markets. The Chicago school argued that markets are self-correcting and that any attempts to regulate or control them will only lead to unintended consequences. They believed that free markets would lead to optimal outcomes in terms of efficiency, growth, and innovation.
Furthermore, the school emphasizes the importance of minimal government intervention in the economy. This includes limiting the role of government in providing public goods, such as education and healthcare, and reducing government regulations on business activity to also encourage and increase the rate of private sector participation in the economy. They argued that government intervention in the economy can lead to rent-seeking and other forms of corruption which are often associated with bureaucracy, thus undermining the efficiency of the market in the long run.
Critics of the Chicago school neoliberalism theory argue that the ideas propounded by the school can lead to income inequality, social instability, and environmental degradation. Stating that the emphasis on individualism and free markets can lead to a concentration of wealth and power among a few and that it does not adequately address the needs of the poor and marginalized members of society. They also argue that the minimal role of government can lead to environmental degradation, as companies are not held accountable for the negative externalities they generate.
The Chicago school thus emphasizes the efficiency of free markets, the importance of individualism, and minimal government intervention in the economy as its main neoliberalism theory.
The Austrian school neoliberalism theory emerged in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century and is associated with the work of economists such as Friedrich Hayek and Ludwig von Mises. This theory emphasizes the importance of individual rights and freedoms arguing that the individual is the primary unit of society and that individuals have a natural right to their own lives, liberty, and property. They believed that government intervention in the economy, such as through taxation and the regulation of businesses, violates these individual rights to freely use their money and engage in business and consequently undermines the efficiency of the market.
Property rights are considered important by Austrian school economists. They argued that the right to private property is a fundamental aspect of individual freedom and a prerequisite for economic growth and prosperity. This is because the right to individually own property spurs hard work toward acquiring and owning property. They believed that free markets, which are based on voluntary exchanges between individuals, are the most effective way to protect property rights and promote economic growth. They also advocate for minimal government intervention in the economy; arguing that government intervention in the economy can distort market signals and lead to inefficiencies.
They believed that when markets are allowed to operate independently without intervention from the government, such markets allocate resources more efficiently in terms of producing the required goods and services to meet consumer demands. This in turn promotes economic growth as more buying and selling takes place voluntarily between the producers and consumers. Critics of this neoliberalism theory argue that it can lead to income inequality and social instability. They point to the emphasis on individual rights and property rights as vehicles that build up individual self-interest which mostly results in greed and the concentration of wealth and power among very few individuals.
The majority are left to wallow in poverty and without adequate provisions to meet their daily needs as a result of this unequal wealth distribution. They also argue that the minimal role of government can lead to the proliferation of illegal businesses as well as a blatant disregard for the impacts of the activities of companies on the environment since no one will hold these companies accountable for any negative impacts their activities have on the environment. Hence, the environment may become riddled with several issues ranging from air, water, land, and other forms of environmental pollution.
Therefore, the Austrian school neoliberalism theory emphasizes the importance of individual and property rights, as well as free markets and minimal government intervention in the economy. While the Austrian school ideologies have been influential in shaping economic policies around the world, it is also controversial and has been subject to criticism by those who argue that it does not adequately address the needs of all members of society.
Ordoliberalism is a neoliberal theory that was developed between 1930 to 1950 by German economists and legal scholars from the Freiburg School, due to its german roots, it was sometimes referred to as German neoliberalism. Some of the early proponents of ordoliberalism include Walter Eucken, Franz Böhm, Hans Grossmann-Doerth, and Leonhard Miksch. Unlike the Chicago school and the Austrian school which advocates for limited government intervention, this theory advocates for the active involvement of the government in the economy.
This neoliberalism theory emphasizes the need for a strong, rules-based market economy that is regulated by the state. Ordoliberals argue that government intervention is needed in the market to maintain a healthy level of competition among firms so as to hinder the rise of monopolies which may undermine the free market. The government is also expected to create a proper legal environment for the economy such that the rule of law prevails and is respected by all economic actors. Thus, the role of the state although increased than in other neoliberalism theories is somewhat restricted too to forming an economic order for the proper function of the economy and not directly orchestrating how economic activities should occur.
Ordoliberalism generally features a market where both the government and the private sector are significant contributors to the economy, thus, it is more commonly associated with the social market economy which combines aspects of both socialism and free enterprise. Thus, the main ideas of this neoliberalism theory are the maintenance of a free market with ample competition and government regulation to ensure its effectiveness.
This neoliberalism theory emphasizes the importance of institutions in shaping economic outcomes and seeks to create institutions that promote free markets and individual rights. It emerged in the late twentieth century and is associated with the work of economists such as Douglass North and Oliver Williamson. One of its main tenets is the belief that institutions play a critical role in shaping economic behavior. This view is based on the notion that well-functioning institutions, both formal and informal, provide the framework for economic interactions, and thus they play a crucial role in shaping economic outcomes.
For instance, institutions such as the Central bank, law courts, and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) all play significant roles in the United States economy. The Central bank is saddled with the responsibility of overseeing monetary stability which is a main vehicle for limiting inflation. Law courts backed by the rule of law provide protection for property rights. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) oversees and enforces contracts in the financial market. All these institutions combined help to promote investment, innovation, and entrepreneurship, which can lead to economic growth.
Institutional neoliberals believe that government intervention in the economy as might be obtainable through the implementation of price floors or price ceilings for goods and services can distort market signals and lead to inefficiencies. This is because manufacturers may be disincentivized to produce certain goods and services when they know that their profits from such productions will be minimized by government price controls. They also emphasize the importance of competition as a driver of innovation and efficiency arguing that the free enterprise system whose bedrock is the voluntary exchange between manufacturers and consumers further improves the efficient allocation of resources at production and promotes economic growth.
This neoliberalism theory also supports international trade and globalization of markets arguing that they promote economic growth across the globe. International trade allows countries to specialize in the production of goods and services in which they have a comparative advantage, and this specialization leads to greater efficiency and economic growth as other countries buy such products and services from these specialized companies.
Neoliberals believe that globalization, which is facilitated by free trade agreements and international organizations such as the World Trade Organization, also promotes economic growth and the diffusion of technology and knowledge across borders. This can be attested to by the various technological advancements that have been recorded the world over due to globalization.
Critics of institutional neoliberalism theory argue the emphasis on institutions can lead to a concentration of power and wealth among controlling institutions which invariably leaves a majority of the population at the mercy of the policies and regulations enacted by these institutions. They also argue that the emphasis on international trade and globalization can lead to ignoring the needs of the poor and marginalized within particular countries as the focus becomes on the international front instead of domestic issues. Environmental degradation as well as the increase in illegal trade such as the sale of hard drugs may also arise as a result of international trade and globalization.
In summary, institutional neoliberalism theory emphasizes the importance of institutions, free international trade, and globalization in promoting economic growth and efficiency.
Market neoliberalism theory emphasizes the importance of free markets and individual freedoms. This view emerged in the late 20th century and has become influential in shaping neoliberal economic policies around the world. The central idea of market neoliberalism is that free markets are the most efficient way to allocate resources and promote economic growth. This view is based on the belief that individuals are best equipped to make decisions about their own economic behavior, and that markets provide the incentives and information necessary to ensure that resources are used efficiently. In this view, government intervention in the economy, such as price controls or regulations is viewed as counterproductive as they can distort market signals and lead to inefficiencies.
This theory also emphasizes the importance of individual freedom and choice stating that individuals should be free to pursue their own economic interests without interference from the state, as long as their actions do not harm others. They believe that government intervention in the economy can infringe on individual freedoms and lead to a less efficient allocation of resources. Hence, individuals who want to invest in or start businesses of their own are at liberty to do so provided that the business is not going to harm other individuals.
For instance, while an individual can choose to start a business selling cocaine, the government will not allow that because such a business has the tendency of causing harm to other individuals in case of drug addiction or overdose. In addition, market neoliberalism theory places a high value on competition arguing that competition is a driver of innovation and efficiency and that monopolies and other forms of market power can lead to inefficiencies and harm consumers. Market neoliberals believe that government policies should be designed to promote competition, rather than protect existing firms from competition.
This is because competition drives companies to be more innovative in the kind of products and services they offer and consumers get a variety of choices and options to choose from at the best price possible. Critics of the market theory argue that the emphasis on market efficiency and competition can affect the production of public goods since the companies are more concerned about improving their bottom line than meeting societal needs. They also argue that the promotion of individual liberty could adversely affect society as individuals are more concerned about themselves than the common good of all members of society.
Social neoliberalism is also known as third-way neoliberalism. This theory of neoliberalism emerged in the 1990s as a response to the perceived failures of both traditional left-wing and right-wing economic policies. It, therefore, emphasizes the need to balance economic efficiency with social justice, as well as use government policies to address social issues such as inequality and poverty. Its central idea is that economic growth and social justice are not mutually exclusive goals. Hence, social neoliberal economists argue that a market-based economy can promote economic growth, but that government policies are necessary to address social issues such as poverty, inequality, and environmental degradation.
This view is based on the belief that government can play a positive role in shaping economic outcomes, and that market-based approaches are not sufficient to address social problems. This neoliberalism theory places a high value on social inclusion and equity and advocates that economic policies should be designed to promote social inclusion and reduce inequality. This may involve policies that are considered socialist such as progressive taxation where the individual tax rate is differentiated based on wealth, social welfare programs, and investment in education and training. It additionally emphasizes the importance of environmental sustainability pointing out that economic growth cannot be sustained if it comes at the expense of the environment.
They propose that government policies should be designed to promote sustainable development, such as by controlling deforestation, regulating air, land, and water pollution, reducing the use of fossil fuels, and promoting renewable energy use. Critics of social neoliberalism argue that although it canvases social justice, it does not adequately address the needs of the poor and marginalized members of society. They also argue that the emphasis on government policies to drive social justice and environmental sustainability can lead to a lack of focus on individual freedoms and market efficiency.
Forms of neoliberalism theory
- International relations
- Self-regulating markets
Neoliberal theory of globalization
One of the prevalent forms of neoliberalism today is globalization. Globalization is reshaping the world, the conditions in which we exist, and the societies in which we live. The neoliberal theory of globalization is a set of ideas and policies that emerged in the late 20th century and has since become a dominant approach to global economic policymaking. It is based on the integration of the world’s economies based on the principles of neoliberalism. It emphasizes the importance of free trade, open markets, and economic integration. At the core of this theory of neoliberalism is the belief that economic globalization can create wealth, promote economic growth, and reduce poverty.
According to this view, the removal of barriers to trade and investment can create economic opportunities and stimulate growth, while also promoting cultural exchange and cooperation. This can be achieved through the various interactions and transactions that take place daily in the global marketplace.
Neoliberalism in globalization also emphasizes the importance of international institutions such as the World Bank, the World Trade Organization, and the International Monetary Fund to oversee and regulate global economic activity. These institutions are seen as a pertinent part of globalization as they aid in ensuring that economic globalization is guided by rules and regulations that protect consumers, workers, and the environment.
Due to the differences that may also ensue in business practices and which may arise between parties in the global marketplace, these institutions are also useful in conflict resolution between conflicting parties be it organizations or even countries. Critics of this neoliberalism form argue that the free market policies which are necessary for globalization can lead to environmental degradation and resource depletion and that the benefits of economic growth may not be distributed equally across society. This is because the wealthy and powerful capitalists who own international companies or invest in such ventures may derive the most benefits from globalization while the working class may be negatively affected.
This is due to the fact that globalization can lead to a race to the bottom in terms of labor standards, as countries compete for investment by reducing wages and abolishing various worker protections to accommodate the global market. While the workers suffer the negative brunt of globalization, private companies benefit as the costs of investments are minimized thereby effectively increasing their profit margins. With the rise of globalization, they argue, the world becomes increasingly dominated and penetrated by a capitalist logic that transforms every aspect of life into a commodity and leads to unbalanced power relations, both internationally and domestically.
Neoliberal development theory
Neoliberal development theory is a set of economic policies and strategies that prioritize market-oriented approaches to development. It is another form of neoliberalism that emerged in the 1980s and 1990s as a response to the perceived failures of state-led development models. At its core, it emphasizes the importance of free markets, trade liberalization, privatization, deregulation, and reduced government intervention in the economy. It also places a strong emphasis on the role of the private sector in development.
The idea of privatization which involves the transfer of control from the government to private individuals or entities is based on the proposition that governments are often inefficient in handling factories, industries, and other service provision outfits when compared to private entities or individuals. Proponents further argue that the policies of establishing free markets, trade liberalization, deregulation, and reduced government intervention in the economy create an environment that is conducive to economic growth and development, as they increase efficiency, competition, and investment.
According to this view, private investment and entrepreneurship are the engines of economic growth, and governments should focus on creating an enabling environment that facilitates private sector activity so as to increase the rate of economic growth. Hence, this form of neoliberalism advocates for allowing every individual equal opportunity to invest in an already existing enterprise or start one. Critics of neoliberal development theory however argue that it prioritizes the interests of powerful global actors over the needs and priorities of local communities, and can exacerbate inequality and poverty.
Neoliberal economic theory
Neoliberal economic theory is a set of economic ideas and policies that emerged in the 20th century and has since become a dominant approach to economic policymaking in many countries including the United States. At the heart of the neoliberal economic theory is the belief that market forces, such as supply and demand, should be allowed to operate freely without government interference. This is based on the assumption that competitive markets are the most efficient way to allocate resources, and that prices reflect the true value of goods and services. It often includes measures such as the deregulation of industries, privatization of government companies, and trade liberalization.
These policies aim to create a more competitive and efficient market environment that can stimulate economic growth and create more job opportunities. Neoliberal economic theory also emphasizes the importance of fiscal austerity and reducing government spending, especially on social welfare programs, with the belief that excessive government intervention can distort market incentives, decrease individual hard work, and lead to economic inefficiencies. It additionally places a strong emphasis on private property rights and the protection of intellectual property. This is based on the belief that owning personal property boosts individual confidence and that individuals should benefit from their intellectual property through exclusivity to it.
Critics of neoliberal economic theory argue that free market policies can lead to a highly skewed society with very few wealthy people and the majority in adverse poverty because the benefits of economic growth may not be distributed equally across society. They thus assert that it prioritizes the interests of the wealthy and powerful while increasing the levels of inequality and poverty. Hence this neoliberalism form remains a highly contested topic in economics, with supporters and opponents offering different perspectives on its merits and drawbacks.
Neoliberalism political theory
Neoliberalism political theory is a form of neoliberal philosophy that advocates for a free-market approach to governance. It emerged in the mid-20th century as a response to the perceived failures of state-led economic and social models with the aim of improving the political systems that were already existing at that time. Its core tenet is the belief that individuals should be free to pursue their own self-interest without any form of hindrance in form of restrictions or coercion from the government. It, therefore, emphasizes the importance of individualism and argues that government intervention in the economy should be limited in order to allow for maximum personal and economic freedom.
The neoliberal political theory also places a strong emphasis on the importance of free trade and globalization especially as concerns the policies that are supported by political parties and politicians. It suggests that the removal of barriers to trade and investment can create economic opportunities and stimulate growth, while also promoting cultural exchange and cooperation which can lead to the adoption of cultural values that are beneficial on the political front as well as cooperation among politicians irrespective of their political affiliation. Like previous forms of neoliberalism, the neoliberal political theory also supports the view that markets are the most efficient means of allocating resources and creating economic growth.
The critics of this form of neoliberalism argue that it is impossible to have cooperative relations among politicians especially due to the fact that political parties and politicians are usually loyal only to the policies that favor their parties or their political careers. They also point out that when free market policies are adopted, they often lead to environmental degradation, resource depletion, and unequal distribution of wealth and income in society.
Neoliberalism theory in international relations
In international relations, neoliberalism is a theory that emphasizes the importance of economic interdependence and the benefits of free trade and globalization. It emerged in the late 20th century as a response to traditional realist approaches that focused on power politics and military force on the international scene. At the core of neoliberalism in international relations is the belief that the global economy is a key factor in shaping international relations, and that economic cooperation and integration can lead to greater stability and peace in the world.
It thus advocates for the removal of barriers to trade and investment, and the promotion of international institutions such as the World Trade Organization and the International Monetary Fund to oversee and regulate global economic activity. This is aimed at unifying international production standards, increasing access to investments, increasing cooperation among producers, and integrating more effective manufacturing techniques that are beneficial to both the producers and consumers alike. Neoliberalism in international relations also emphasizes the importance of soft power and the use of economic incentives to achieve foreign policy goals, rather than relying solely on military force. According to this view, economic cooperation and interdependence can promote shared interests and create incentives for the peaceful resolution of conflicts.
This is based on the belief that when countries are interdependent on each other, they will not engage in activities such as war that will undermine peaceful coexistence and by extension, negatively affect foreign trade. The critics of this form of neoliberalism argue that it can lead to the exploitation of weaker states by more powerful actors through the exploitation of the resources of the weaker countries for the benefit of the stronger countries thereby leading to an increase in global inequality and poverty. They point to the economic inequalities and poverty that arose due to the colonization of various countries as a major disadvantage of neoliberalism in international relations.
They also point out that the liberalization of trade and investment can lead to the same outcome of exploitation and that international institutions can be undemocratic and lack accountability since they are usually self-governing and are not under the jurisdiction of any particular government; thus not being answerable to any government. Although neoliberals generally support neoliberalism in international relations, it remains a highly contested topic, with supporters and opponents offering different perspectives on its advantages and disadvantages to various countries and the world as a whole.
Neoliberal theory of education
The policies and ideas that govern the neoliberal theory of education emerged in the late 20th century in response to the failure of most educational institutions to adequately cater to the expenses they generate such as maintenance of their structures and payment of teachers. In order to do away with this challenge, neoliberalism in education emphasizes the importance of market-oriented approaches and individualism with a focus on efficiency and accountability in the educational sector. It is geared toward the belief that schools at all levels of education should operate like businesses, with a focus on outcomes, productivity, and competition.
According to this view, primary, secondary, and tertiary schools should be held accountable for their performance and results and should compete with each other to provide the best education and training. It also places a strong emphasis on the importance of private enterprise and individual responsibility in education. This means that the role of the state in education should be limited and that individuals should have more choice and control over their education and career paths. This can be achieved through the establishment of private high schools, colleges, and universities as well as proper education and enlightenment of individuals on the best career paths to take based both on their areas of gifting and the current societal needs.
Neoliberalism in education often includes policies such as school choice, standardized testing, and performance-based funding. It means that individuals will be allowed to choose the schools they attend themselves as opposed to being enrolled in particular schools based on the school’s proximity to where they live. Standardized testing will also be adopted as a means of unifying how students’ performance is analyzed and graded. Due to the proposed benefits of neoliberalism in education, a considerable number of countries including the United Kingdom and the United States have adopted most of its policies in their educational sector.
This can be traced back to the neoliberal policies adopted and implemented by Margeret Thatcher and Ronald Regean in the United Kingdom and the United States respectively. The neoliberal theory of education has been criticized for prioritizing the interests of the market through the making of profits over the needs of students and teachers. Critics point out that this has led to an increase in the cost of education which has consequently increased illiteracy levels and low wages for teachers thereby exacerbating social segregation based on education. They also point out that the focus on standardized testing and outcomes can narrow the curriculum, discourage creativity and critical thinking and emphasize the cramming of facts to pass these tests.
They further argue that the emphasis on individual responsibility can create a culture of blame and further marginalize disadvantaged students as the school system gets focused on the profits accruing to the school owners without considering students from disadvantaged households.
Neoliberal theory of self-regulating markets
According to the neoliberal theory of self-regulating markets, markets are seen as self-regulating and efficient mechanisms for allocating resources and creating economic growth. This neoliberalism form thus believes that markets should be left to operate without interference from the government, and that government intervention in the economy can distort market signals and lead to inefficiencies. This means that markets are seen as the best mechanism for determining prices and allocating resources and that government intervention should be minimized.
Proponents of the neoliberal theory of self-regulating markets also emphasize the importance of individualism, entrepreneurship, and innovation. They argue that self-regulating markets encourage individual initiative and creativity since the markets reward these with more sales.
Additionally, they suggest that competition between firms usually leads to the creation of better products, lower prices of goods and services, and greater efficiency. This is because as competition increases, companies, firms, and service providers will have to optimally use their resources in the production of goods or provision of services that can compete favorably with those made available by their competitors. This often results in a reduction in price and an increase in quality to attract new customers, retain old customers, and increase profitability.
Critics of the neoliberal theory of self-regulating markets argue that markets are not always efficient or fair, and that government intervention is necessary to ensure that markets operate in the best interests of society as a whole. They point out that markets can be subject to monopolies, externalities, and other factors that can lead to market failure, and that government intervention can correct these market failures and promote social welfare.
Neoliberal theory of society
The neoliberal theory of society emphasizes the importance of individualism, competition, and market-oriented approaches, with a focus on efficiency, productivity, and growth. At the core of the neoliberal theory of society is the belief that individuals are responsible for their own success and well-being, and that markets are the best mechanism for determining the value of goods and services. This means that the role of the government in society should be limited and that individuals should have more choice and control over their own lives and destinies. This often ensues in the freedom of choice when it concerns education, career, investment, religion, entrepreneurship, etc.
Neoliberalism in society, therefore, emphasizes the importance of entrepreneurship, innovation, and flexibility. Stating that individuals should be encouraged to take risks and pursue opportunities and that social and economic institutions should be adaptable and responsive to changing conditions so as not to limit an individual’s capacity for growth and self-actualization. This is in order to ensure that all individuals have the opportunity as well as the freedom to contribute meaningfully to the development and advancement of the society where they find themselves.
Critics of this neoliberalism form argue that the private ownership and control of public goods and services can limit access to essential resources and create further inequalities in society. They also point out that the emphasis on individualism can undermine social solidarity and community, and that the focus on efficiency and productivity can lead to a culture of overwork and burnout which are detrimental to the health of individuals and could ultimately lead to a reduction in both efficiency and productivity.
Neoliberal theory of the state
The neoliberal theory of the state is the most prominent form of neoliberalism and has become a dominant approach to governance and economic policymaking in many countries. According to this theory, the role of the state in society should be limited, and that individuals and markets are the best mechanisms for creating economic growth and promoting social welfare. This form of neoliberalism suggests that the state should focus on maintaining law and order, protecting property rights, and providing a stable framework for economic activity. This means that state intervention in the economy should be minimized and that the private sector should be given more freedom to innovate and create wealth.
The ideas and policies propagated by the neoliberal theory of the state also emphasize the importance of fiscal austerity which involves the reduction of state expenditure through a reduction in public spending and lowering of taxes. They argue that a reduction in government spending will lead to a more efficient and productive economy with a strong state while the lowering of taxes especially that of corporations will encourage individual initiative and entrepreneurship.
Critics of the neoliberal theory of the state point out that the reduction of public spending can lead to cuts in essential services, such as healthcare and education, and that the emphasis on deregulation can lead to the reckless and unsustainable use of resources in the pursuit of profit which may result in environmental degradation and resource depletion.
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The various theories of neoliberalism and its forms comprise ideologies and policies that propagate the creation of free trade zones, limited government interference in the economy, deregulation, as well as private ownership of the means of production, individual freedom, and fiscal austerity. Neoliberals generally consider these as the bedrock for the realization of a more prosperous, stable, and vibrant economy which can be obtainable all over the world through globalization. In as much as neoliberalism has gained ground in several countries and has considerable influence in politics, economics, international relations, education, markets, and several facets of society, it is still a topic of considerable debate.
Critics point to some lapses of neoliberalism such as:
- The possibility of increased illiteracy due to the increasing cost of education.
- The boom and bust cycles of the free market due to changes in supply and demand could adversely affect the stability of the economy.
- Unfavorable working conditions and wages due to the need to generate more profits by firms.
- Increased competition for local industries through globalization and free trade zones brings a high level of foreign competition that often have cheaper and better products.
- Heightened individualism and the promotion of self-interest at the expense of community and communal benefits.
- Inaccessibility of public goods and services due to the privatization of industries and the reduction in government involvement in the economy as well as reduced government spending.
All these and many more have been pointed out as possible drawbacks of the application and adoption of the theories of neoliberalism. Thus, it is important that sectors, states, and countries consider both the benefits and drawbacks that could result when neoliberal theories are adopted and implemented before deciding on the ideas and policies to adopt.